SQL Data Types

Data types and ranges for Microsoft Access, MySQL and SQL Server.


Microsoft Access Data Types

Data typeDescriptionStorage
TextUse for text or combinations of text and numbers. 255 characters maximum
MemoMemo is used for larger amounts of text. Stores up to 65,536 characters. Note: You cannot sort a memo field. However, they are searchable
ByteAllows whole numbers from 0 to 2551 byte
IntegerAllows whole numbers between -32,768 and 32,7672 bytes
LongAllows whole numbers between -2,147,483,648 and 2,147,483,6474 bytes
SingleSingle precision floating-point. Will handle most decimals4 bytes
DoubleDouble precision floating-point. Will handle most decimals8 bytes
CurrencyUse for currency. Holds up to 15 digits of whole dollars, plus 4 decimal places. Tip: You can choose which country's currency to use8 bytes
AutoNumberAutoNumber fields automatically give each record its own number, usually starting at 14 bytes
Date/TimeUse for dates and times8 bytes
Yes/NoA logical field can be displayed as Yes/No, True/False, or On/Off. In code, use the constants True and False (equivalent to -1 and 0).Note: Null values are not allowed in Yes/No fields1 bit
Ole ObjectCan store pictures, audio, video, or other BLOBs (Binary Large OBjects)up to 1GB
HyperlinkContain links to other files, including web pages
Lookup WizardLet you type a list of options, which can then be chosen from a drop-down list4 bytes


MySQL Data Types

In MySQL there are three main types : text, number, and Date/Time types.

Text types:

Data typeDescription
CHAR(size)Holds a fixed length string (can contain letters, numbers, and special characters). The fixed size is specified in parenthesis. Can store up to 255 characters
VARCHAR(size)Holds a variable length string (can contain letters, numbers, and special characters). The maximum size is specified in parenthesis. Can store up to 255 characters. Note: If you put a greater value than 255 it will be converted to a TEXT type
TINYTEXTHolds a string with a maximum length of 255 characters
TEXTHolds a string with a maximum length of 65,535 characters
BLOBFor BLOBs (Binary Large OBjects). Holds up to 65,535 bytes of data
MEDIUMTEXTHolds a string with a maximum length of 16,777,215 characters
MEDIUMBLOBFor BLOBs (Binary Large OBjects). Holds up to 16,777,215 bytes of data
LONGTEXTHolds a string with a maximum length of 4,294,967,295 characters
LONGBLOBFor BLOBs (Binary Large OBjects). Holds up to 4,294,967,295 bytes of data
ENUM(x,y,z,etc.)Let you enter a list of possible values. You can list up to 65535 values in an ENUM list. If a value is inserted that is not in the list, a blank value will be inserted.

Note: The values are sorted in the order you enter them.

You enter the possible values in this format: ENUM('X','Y','Z')

SETSimilar to ENUM except that SET may contain up to 64 list items and can store more than one choice

Number types:

Data typeDescription
TINYINT(size)-128 to 127 normal. 0 to 255 UNSIGNED*. The maximum number of digits may be specified in parenthesis
SMALLINT(size)-32768 to 32767 normal. 0 to 65535 UNSIGNED*. The maximum number of digits may be specified in parenthesis
MEDIUMINT(size)-8388608 to 8388607 normal. 0 to 16777215 UNSIGNED*. The maximum number of digits may be specified in parenthesis
INT(size)-2147483648 to 2147483647 normal. 0 to 4294967295 UNSIGNED*. The maximum number of digits may be specified in parenthesis
BIGINT(size)-9223372036854775808 to 9223372036854775807 normal. 0 to 18446744073709551615 UNSIGNED*. The maximum number of digits may be specified in parenthesis
FLOAT(size,d)A small number with a floating decimal point. The maximum number of digits may be specified in the size parameter. The maximum number of digits to the right of the decimal point is specified in the d parameter
DOUBLE(size,d)A large number with a floating decimal point. The maximum number of digits may be specified in the size parameter. The maximum number of digits to the right of the decimal point is specified in the d parameter
DECIMAL(size,d)A DOUBLE stored as a string , allowing for a fixed decimal point. The maximum number of digits may be specified in the size parameter. The maximum number of digits to the right of the decimal point is specified in the d parameter

*The integer types have an extra option called UNSIGNED. Normally, the integer goes from an negative to positive value. Adding the UNSIGNED attribute will move that range up so it starts at zero instead of a negative number.

Date types:

Data typeDescription
DATE()A date. Format: YYYY-MM-DD

Note: The supported range is from '1000-01-01' to '9999-12-31'

DATETIME()*A date and time combination. Format: YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS

Note: The supported range is from '1000-01-01 00:00:00' to '9999-12-31 23:59:59'

TIMESTAMP()*A timestamp. TIMESTAMP values are stored as the number of seconds since the Unix epoch ('1970-01-01 00:00:00' UTC). Format: YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS

Note: The supported range is from '1970-01-01 00:00:01' UTC to '2038-01-09 03:14:07' UTC

TIME()A time. Format: HH:MM:SS

Note: The supported range is from '-838:59:59' to '838:59:59'

YEAR()A year in two-digit or four-digit format.

Note: Values allowed in four-digit format: 1901 to 2155. Values allowed in two-digit format: 70 to 69, representing years from 1970 to 2069

*Even if DATETIME and TIMESTAMP return the same format, they work very differently. In an INSERT or UPDATE query, the TIMESTAMP automatically set itself to the current date and time. TIMESTAMP also accepts various formats, like YYYYMMDDHHMMSS, YYMMDDHHMMSS, YYYYMMDD, or YYMMDD.


SQL Server Data Types

Character strings:

Data typeDescriptionStorage
char(n)Fixed-length character string. Maximum 8,000 charactersn
varchar(n)Variable-length character string. Maximum 8,000 characters
varchar(max)Variable-length character string. Maximum 1,073,741,824 characters
textVariable-length character string. Maximum 2GB of text data

Unicode strings:

Data typeDescriptionStorage
nchar(n)Fixed-length Unicode data. Maximum 4,000 characters
nvarchar(n)Variable-length Unicode data. Maximum 4,000 characters
nvarchar(max)Variable-length Unicode data. Maximum 536,870,912 characters
ntextVariable-length Unicode data. Maximum 2GB of text data

Binary types:

Data typeDescriptionStorage
bitAllows 0, 1, or NULL
binary(n)Fixed-length binary data. Maximum 8,000 bytes
varbinary(n)Variable-length binary data. Maximum 8,000 bytes
varbinary(max)Variable-length binary data. Maximum 2GB
imageVariable-length binary data. Maximum 2GB

Number types:

Data typeDescriptionStorage
tinyintAllows whole numbers from 0 to 2551 byte
smallintAllows whole numbers between -32,768 and 32,7672 bytes
intAllows whole numbers between -2,147,483,648 and 2,147,483,6474 bytes
bigintAllows whole numbers between -9,223,372,036,854,775,808 and 9,223,372,036,854,775,8078 bytes
decimal(p,s)Fixed precision and scale numbers.

Allows numbers from -10^38 +1 to 10^38 –1.

The p parameter indicates the maximum total number of digits that can be stored (both to the left and to the right of the decimal point). p must be a value from 1 to 38. Default is 18.

The s parameter indicates the maximum number of digits stored to the right of the decimal point. s must be a value from 0 to p. Default value is 0

5-17 bytes
numeric(p,s)Fixed precision and scale numbers.

Allows numbers from -10^38 +1 to 10^38 –1.

The p parameter indicates the maximum total number of digits that can be stored (both to the left and to the right of the decimal point). p must be a value from 1 to 38. Default is 18.

The s parameter indicates the maximum number of digits stored to the right of the decimal point. s must be a value from 0 to p. Default value is 0

5-17 bytes
smallmoneyMonetary data from -214,748.3648 to 214,748.36474 bytes
moneyMonetary data from -922,337,203,685,477.5808 to 922,337,203,685,477.58078 bytes
float(n)Floating precision number data from -1.79E + 308 to 1.79E + 308.

The n parameter indicates whether the field should hold 4 or 8 bytes. float(24) holds a 4-byte field and float(53) holds an 8-byte field. Default value of n is 53.

4 or 8 bytes
realFloating precision number data from -3.40E + 38 to 3.40E + 384 bytes

Date types:

Data typeDescriptionStorage
datetimeFrom January 1, 1753 to December 31, 9999 with an accuracy of 3.33 milliseconds8 bytes
datetime2From January 1, 0001 to December 31, 9999 with an accuracy of 100 nanoseconds6-8 bytes
smalldatetimeFrom January 1, 1900 to June 6, 2079 with an accuracy of 1 minute4 bytes
dateStore a date only. From January 1, 0001 to December 31, 99993 bytes
timeStore a time only to an accuracy of 100 nanoseconds3-5 bytes
datetimeoffsetThe same as datetime2 with the addition of a time zone offset8-10 bytes
timestampStores a unique number that gets updated every time a row gets created or modified. The timestamp value is based upon an internal clock and does not correspond to real time. Each table may have only one timestamp variable

Other data types:

Data typeDescription
sql_variantStores up to 8,000 bytes of data of various data types, except text, ntext, and timestamp
uniqueidentifierStores a globally unique identifier (GUID)
xmlStores XML formatted data. Maximum 2GB
cursorStores a reference to a cursor used for database operations
tableStores a result-set for later processing

No comments: