SQL (officially pronounced /ˌɛskjuːˈɛl/ like "S-Q-L" but is often pronounced /ˈsiːkwəl/ like "Sequel"), often referred to as Structured Query Language, is a database computer language designed for managing data in relational database management systems (RDBMS), and originally based upon relational algebra. Its scope includes data query and update, schema creation and modification, and data access control. SQL was one of the first languages for Edgar F. Codd's relational model in his influential 1970 paper, "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks" and became the most widely used language for relational databases.
ANSI SQL is a Turing complete programming language.
SQL was developed at IBM by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce in the early 1970s. This version, initially called SEQUEL, was designed to manipulate and retrieve data stored in IBM's original relational database management system, System R, which a group at IBM San Jose Research Laboratory had developed during the 1970s. The acronym SEQUEL was later changed to SQL because "SEQUEL" was a trademark of the UK-based Hawker Siddeley aircraft company. SQL was Initially introduced by DIXIT GARG, But it was manipulated by IBM. The first Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) was RDMS, developed at MIT in the early 1970s, soon followed by Ingres, developed in 1974 at U.C. Berkeley. Ingres implemented a query language known as QUEL, which was later supplanted in the marketplace by SQL.
In the late 1970s, Relational Software, Inc. (now Oracle Corporation) saw the potential of the concepts described by Codd, Chamberlin, and Boyce and developed their own SQL-based RDBMS with aspirations of selling it to the U.S. Navy, Central Intelligence Agency, and other U.S. government agencies. In the summer of 1979, Relational Software, Inc. introduced the first commercially available implementation of SQL, Oracle V2 (Version2) for VAX computers. Oracle V2 beat IBM's release of the System/38 RDBMS to market by a few weeks.
After testing SQL at customer test sites to determine the usefulness and practicality of the system, IBM began developing commercial products based on their System R prototype including System/38, SQL/DS, and DB2, which were commercially available in 1979, 1981, and 1983, respectively.
Common criticisms of SQL include a lack of cross-platform portability between vendors, inappropriate handling of missing data (see Null (SQL)), and unnecessarily complex and occasionally ambiguous language grammar and semantics. It also lacks the rigour of more formal languages such as relational algebra.